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Bilateral debt includes loans from governments and their agencies (including central banks), loans from autonomous bodies, and direct loans from official export credit agencies. These are non-concessional figures, however the explanation for concessional is provided here as reference. Concessional debt is defined as loans with an original grant element of 25 percent or more. The grant equivalent of a loan is its commitment (present) value, less the discounted present value of its contractual debt service; conventionally, future service payments are discounted at 10 percent. The grant element of a loan is the grant equivalent expressed as a percentage of the amount committed. It is used as a measure of the overall cost of borrowing. Principal repayments are actual amounts of principal (amortization) paid in currency, goods, or services in the year specified.