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Average difference between pupil scores in rural and urban areas controlling for the socioeconomic index and the territorial planning index, which is calculated based on the availability of the following infrastructure and services: a paved road; electricity; a lower secondary school; an upper secondary school; a hospital; a medical or healthcare center; a police station; a bank; a savings bank; a post office; and a cultural center or library. When urban and rural schools are located in areas with similar infrastructure and service levels as measured by the territorial planning index, the gaps between pupils’ scores tend to be smaller. Urban areas include towns and town suburbs, and rural areas include large villages (several hundred family lots) and small villages (up to one hundred family lots). These urban/rural definitions are standard across countries to facilitate the comparison of trends from one country to another. See footnotes for the statistical significance of each data point. Data were published for this indicator beginning with PASEC 2014. Consult the PASEC website for more detailed information: http://www.pasec.confemen.org/