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Public Management: Within this subcategory the Ibrahim Index measures: (i) Quality of Public Administration – clustered indicator (average) of variables from the African Development Bank and the World Bank measuring the extent to which the civil service is structured to effectively and ethically design policy and deliver services. (ii) Quality of Budget Management – clustered indicator (average) of variables from the African Development Bank and the World Bank measuring the extent to which there is a comprehensive and credible budget, linked to policy priorities, with mechanisms to ensure implementation and reporting. (iii) Currency Inside Banks – total stock of currency held within banks as a proportion of the money supply in an economy (OD). (iv) Ratio of Total Revenue to Total Expenditure – total budget revenue as a proportion of total budget expenditure (OD). (v) Ratio of Budget Deficit or Surplus to GDP – budget deficit or budget surplus as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product. (vi) Management of Public Debt – clustered indicator (average) of variables from the African Development Bank and the World Bank measuring short- and medium term sustainability of fiscal policy and its impact on growth. (vii) Inflation – annual average change in the consumer price index. (viii) Ratio of External Debt Service to Exports – total external debt service due, expressed as a proportion of exports of goods, non-factor services, income and workers’ remittances. (ix) Imports Covered by Reserves – period of time that imports could be paid for by foreign exchange reserves. (x) Statistical Capacity – national statistical systems and their adherence to international norms in the areas of: Methodology (of compiling statistics and indicators); Regularity and coverage of censuses and surveys; Regularity, timeliness and accessibility of key socioeconomic indicators.