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Male 4th grade students reaching the low international benchmark in reading achievement (%) is the share of male 4th grade students scoring at least 400 on the reading assessment. When reading Literary Texts, students at the low benchmarking level can locate and retrieve an explicitly stated detail. When reading Informational Texts, students at the low benchmark can locate and reproduce explicitly stated information that is at the beginning of the text. The procedure for identifying International Benchmarks changed from the PIRLS 2001 method of using percentiles to a method based on scores that do not change from PIRLS cycle to cycle. In PIRLS 2001, the Low Benchmark was called the "Lower Quarter Benchmark" (25th percentile score), which corresponded to a scale score of 435. The 2001 data in this database were recalculated based on a 400 Low Benchmark score and are different than the data found in the 2001 PIRLS report. Data reflects country performance in the stated year, but may not be comparable across years or countries. Consult the PIRLS website for more detailed information: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/