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Average difference between pupil scores in private and public educational institutions controlling for the territorial planning index, which is calculated based on the availability of the following infrastructure and services: a paved road; electricity; a lower secondary school; an upper secondary school; a hospital; a medical or healthcare center; a police station; a bank; a savings bank; a post office; and a cultural center or library. When public and private schools are located in areas with similar infrastructure and service levels as measured by the territorial planning index, the gaps between pupils’ scores tend to be smaller. See footnotes for the statistical significance of each data point. Data were published for this indicator beginning with PASEC 2014. Consult the PASEC website for more detailed information: http://www.pasec.confemen.org/